They seat themselves at a bar in the shadow of the train station and begin to discuss what they should drink. The man, who speaks Spanish while the girl does not, orders two beers from the Spanish waitress, who is referred to as the woman. Hemingway immediately emphasizes the oppressive nature of the setting, and the couple escapes into the only shade available for temporary relief through alcohol.
Plot summary[ edit ] The novel is divided into five sections. In the first, Frederic Henry, an American paramedic serving in the Italian Armyis introduced to Catherine Barkley, an English nurse, by his good friend and roommate, Rinaldi, a surgeon. Frederic attempts to seduce her; although he doesn't want a serious relationship, his feelings for Catherine build.
Frederic is wounded in the knee by a mortar on the Italian Front and sent to a hospital in Milanwhere Catherine is also sent.
The second section shows the growth of Frederic and Catherine's relationship as they spend time together in Milan over the summer. Frederic and Catherine gradually fall in love.
After his knee heals, Frederic is diagnosed with jaundice but is soon kicked out of the hospital and sent back to the front after it is discovered he concealed alcohol.
By the time he is sent back, Catherine is three months pregnant. In the third section, Frederic returns to his unit, and discovers morale has severely dropped. Not long afterwards, the Austro-Hungarians break through the Italian lines in the Battle of Caporettoand the Italians retreat.
Due to a slow and chaotic retreat, Frederic and his men go off trail and quickly get lost, and a frustrated Frederic kills a sergeant for insubordination.
After catching up to the main retreat, Frederic is taken to a place by the "battle police," where officers are being interrogated and executed for the "treachery" that supposedly led to the Italian defeat.
However, after seeing and hearing that everyone interrogated has been killed, Frederic escapes by jumping into a river. He heads to Milan to find Catherine only to discover that she has been sent to Stresa. In the fourth section, Catherine and Frederic reunite and spend some time in Stresa before Frederic learns he will soon be arrested.
He and Catherine then flee to neutral Switzerland in a rowboat given to him by a barkeep. After interrogation by Swiss authorities, they are allowed to stay in Switzerland.
In the final section, Frederic and Catherine live a quiet life in the mountains until she goes into labor. After a long and painful birth, their son is stillborn. Catherine begins to hemorrhage and soon dies, leaving Frederic to return to their hotel in the rain. Background and publication history[ edit ] The novel was based on Hemingway's own experiences serving in the Italian campaigns during the First World War.
The inspiration for Catherine Barkley was Agnes von Kurowskya nurse who cared for Hemingway in a hospital in Milan after he had been wounded. He had planned to marry her but she spurned his love when he returned to America.
The unnamed priest was based on Don Giuseppe Bianchi, the priest of the 69th and 70th regiments of the Brigata Ancona. Although the sources for Rinaldi are unknown, the character had already appeared in In Our Time. Much of the plot was written in correspondence with Frederic J.
Agate, Hemingway's friend, had a collection of letters to his wife from his time in Italy, which were later used as inspiration.
Spear's guest ranch in Wyoming's Bighorns. The book was published in September with a first edition print-run of approximately 31, copies. The newly published edition presents an appendix with the many alternate endings Hemingway wrote for the novel in addition to pieces from early draft manuscripts.
The poem Portrait of a Lady by T. Eliot also starts off by quoting this Marlowe work: One of these copies was presented to Maurice Coindreau ; the other, to James Joyce. Also, the novel could not be published in Italy until because the Fascist regime considered it detrimental to the honor of the Armed Forcesboth in its description of the Battle of Caporettoand for a certain anti-militarism implied in the work.
More than one biographer suggests that at the base of the censorship of the Fascist regime in the novel there had also been a personal antipathy between the writer and Benito Mussolini. Hemingway had interviewed him inshortly after he seized power, and in his article in the Toronto Star he poured scorn on Mussolini, calling him "the biggest bluff in Europe.
Hemingway described Mussolini as trying to impress the media by pretending to be deeply absorbed in reading, while in reality holding a French-English dictionary—held upside down.The Old Man and the Sea is a short novel written by the American author Ernest Hemingway in in Cuba, and published in It was the last major work of fiction by Hemingway that was published during his lifetime.
One of his most famous works, it tells the story of Santiago, an aging Cuban fisherman who struggles with a giant marlin far out in the Gulf Stream off the coast of Cuba. Fulfillment by Amazon (FBA) is a service we offer sellers that lets them store their products in Amazon's fulfillment centers, and we directly pack, ship, and provide customer service for these products.
Home > Literature > Summary > Hills Like White Elephants Summary Hills Like White Elephants by Ernest Hemingway This amazing short story by Ernest Hemingway .
Course Summary Get that extra help you've been needing in English class by studying our 9th grade English tutoring course. Short video lessons help make English easy and fun, and our self. If you are a teacher searching for educational material, please visit PBS LearningMedia for a wide range of free digital resources spanning preschool through 12th grade.
Use our free chapter-by-chapter summary and analysis of Hills Like White Elephants. It helps middle and high school students understand Ernest Hemingway's literary masterpiece.