Methodology Analysis Internet security or cyber security is a branch of computer security specifically related to internet. The Internet has given rise to new opportunities almost in every field such as business, sports, education or entertainment and many others. However, the internet has its own drawbacks like cyber crime, where the computer used for various types of thefts and crime. Various types of cyber crimes include hacking, software piracy, denial of service attack, and cyber terrorism.
Overview[ edit ] In the early s personal computers became more accessible to consumers, leading to their increased use in criminal activity for example, to help commit fraud. At the same time, several new "computer crimes" were recognized such as cracking. The discipline of computer forensics emerged during this time as a method to recover and investigate digital evidence for use in court.
The discipline also features in civil proceedings as a form of information gathering for example, Electronic discovery Forensic techniques and expert knowledge are used to explain the current state of a digital artifact, such as a computer system, storage medium e.
In a book, Computer Forensics, authors Kruse and Heiser define computer forensics as involving "the preservation, identification, extraction, documentation and interpretation of computer data".
However, while several methods can be used to extract evidence from a given computer the strategies used by law enforcement are fairly rigid and lack the flexibility found in the civilian world. This requires that information be authentic, reliably obtained, and admissible.
In the United Kingdomexaminers often follow Association of Chief Police Officers guidelines that help ensure the authenticity and integrity of evidence.
While voluntary, the guidelines are widely accepted in British courts.
Computer forensics has been used as evidence in criminal law since the mids, some notable examples include: Dennis Rader was convicted of a string of serial killings that occurred over a period of sixteen years.
Towards the end of this period, Rader sent letters to the police on a floppy disk. Metadata within the documents implicated an author named "Dennis" at "Christ Lutheran Church"; this evidence helped lead to Rader's arrest.
A spreadsheet recovered from Duncan's computer contained evidence that showed him planning his crimes. Prosecutors used this to show premeditation and secure the death penalty. Hundreds of emails on Lopatka's computer lead investigators to her killer, Robert Glass. This case confirmed parties' duties to preserve digital evidence when litigation has commenced or is reasonably anticipated.
Hard drives were analyzed by a computer forensics expert who could not find relevant emails the Defendants should have had. Though the expert found no evidence of deletion on the hard drives, evidence came out that the defendants were found to have intentionally destroyed emails, and misled and failed to disclose material facts to the plaintiffs and the court.
Conrad Murray, the doctor of the deceased Michael Jacksonwas convicted partially by digital evidence on his computer. This evidence included medical documentation showing lethal amounts of propofol. Digital forensic process A portable Tableau write blocker attached to a Hard Drive Computer forensic investigations usually follow the standard digital forensic process or phases which are acquisition, examination, analysis and reporting.
Investigations are performed on static data i. This is a change from early forensic practices where a lack of specialist tools led to investigators commonly working on live data.
Techniques[ edit ] A number of techniques are used during computer forensics investigations and much has been written on the many techniques used by law enforcement in particular.
Cross-drive analysis A forensic technique that correlates information found on multiple hard drives.Cyber Crime and Security Cybercrime or electronic crime generally refers to criminal activity where a computer or network is the source, tool, target, or place of a crime.
These categories are not exclusive and many activities can be characterized as falling in one or more category. Unauthorised modification of computer data 3All Africa, ICT Ministry Draws Strategies to Curb Cyber Crime, 12 June 4ARTICLE 19, analysis of the Draft Cybercrime Law of Brazil, January Kenya: Cybercrime and Computer Related Crimes Bill.
Cybercrime. What is a computer forensics investigation? Cellular and computer forensics investigations are the collection and analysis of digital data by trained forensic investigators in order to solve a crime . Publications. NIST develops and maintains an extensive collection of standards, guidelines, recommendations, and research on the security and privacy of information and information systems.
The CERT Division. The CERT Division is a leader in cybersecurity. We partner with government, industry, law enforcement, and academia to improve the security and resilience of .
Data Collections: Crime Type City-Level Survey of Crime Victimization and Citizen Attitudes The Bureau Justice Statistics in a joint effort with the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS,) conducted victimization surveys in 12 selected cities.