Plural action essays in philosophy and social science.
Life Aristotle was born in bc, in the Macedonian city of Stagira, now part of northern Greece. In his lifetime the kingdom of Macedon, first under Philip and then under Philip's son Alexander 'the Great'conquered both the Greek cities of Europe and Asia and the Persian Empire.
Although Aristotle spent much of his adult life in Athens, he was not an Athenian citizen. He was closely linked to the kings of Macedon, whom many Greeks regarded as foreign invaders; hence, he was affected by the volatile relations between Macedon and the Greek cities, especially Athens.
Aristotle was the son of Nicomachus, a doctor attached to the Macedonian court. In bc Aristotle came to Athens. He belonged to Plato's Academy until the death of Plato in ; during these years Plato wrote his important later dialogues including the Sophist, Timaeus, Philebus, Statesman, and Lawswhich reconsider many of the doctrines of his earlier dialogues and pursue new lines of thought.
Since there was no dogmatic system of 'Platonism', Aristotle was neither a disciple of such a system nor a rebel against it. The exploratory and critical outlook of the Academy probably encouraged Aristotle's own philosophical growth.
Later he moved to Lesbos, in the eastern Aegean, and then to Macedon, where he was a tutor of Alexander. In he returned to Athens and founded his own school, the Lyceum. In Alexander died; in the resulting outbreak of anti-Macedonian feeling in Athens Aristotle left for Chalcis, on the island of Euboea, where he died in Aristotle married Pythias, a niece of Hermeias, the ruler of Assos.
They had a daughter, also called Pythias. After the death of his wife, Aristotle formed an attachment to Herpyllis, and they had a son Nicomachus. Order of Aristotle's works By the end of Aristotle's life the Lyceum must have become a well-established school.
It lasted after Aristotle's death; his successor as head of the school was his pupil Theophrastus. Many of the works in the Aristotelian corpus appear to be closely related to Aristotle's lectures in the Lyceum. The polished character of some passages suggests preparation for publication for example, Parts of Animals I 5but many passages contain incomplete sentences and compressed allusions, suggesting notes that a lecturer might expand for example, Metaphysics VII It may be wrong, therefore, to ask about the 'date' of a particular treatise.
If Aristotle neither published nor intended to publish the treatises, a given treatise may easily contain contributions from different dates. For similar reasons, we cannot plausibly take cross-references from one work to another as evidence of the order of the works.
External, biographical considerations are unhelpful, since we lack the evidence to support any detailed intellectual biography of Aristotle. A few points, however, may suggest a partial chronology. The Topics may reflect the character of dialectical debates in the Academy.
If a is correct, the Organon precedes the works on natural philosophy. Hence, Aristotle probably pursued his biological research during his years away from Athens. We might trace his biological interests to the Academy see Plato's Timaeus ; he may also have acquired them from his father Nicomachus, who was a doctor.
Probably, then, at least some of the biological works or versions of them are not the latest works in the corpus. The order in which Aristotle's works appear in the Greek manuscripts goes back to early editors and commentators from the first century bc to the sixth century ad ; it reflects their view not about the order in which the works were written, but about the order in which they should be studied.
Appearances The general aim of rational inquiry, according to Aristotle, is to advance from what is 'better known to us' to what is 'better known by nature' see Physics I 1; Posterior Analytics 71b33; Metaphysics b3.
We achieve this aim if: The things better known to us in a particular area are the relevant 'appearances' phainomena. Aristotle presents them through detailed collections of empirical data, reached as a result of 'inquiry' historia; for example, Parts of Animals a8.
Empirical inquiry proceeds from particular observations, by means of generalizations through induction epagog from these particular cases, until we reach experience empeiria.
Experience leads us to principles that are better known by nature Prior Analytics 46a17 ; we also rely on it to test principles we have found Generation of Animals b Philosophical inquiry also relies on 'appearances'.
However, the appearances that concern it are not empirical observations, but common beliefs, assumptions widely shared by 'the many and the wise'. The critical and constructive study of these common beliefs is 'dialectic'.1.
(Philosophy) the academic discipline concerned with making explicit the nature and significance of ordinary and scientific beliefs and investigating the intelligibility of concepts by means of rational argument concerning their presuppositions, implications, and interrelationships; in particular, the rational investigation of the nature and structure of reality (metaphysics), the resources.
Get this from a library! Plural action: essays in philosophy and social science. [Hans Bernhard Schmid] -- Collective Intentionality is a relatively new label for a basic social fact: the sharing of attitudes such as intentions, beliefs and emotions.
This volume contributes to current research on. This article outlines the history of library and information science (LIS), from its roots in library science, information science and documentation.
It considers various conceptions or. Thick Concepts. A term expresses a thick concept if it expresses a specific evaluative concept that is also substantially descriptive. It is a matter of debate how this rough account should be unpacked, but examples can help to convey the basic idea.
Collective Intentionality is a relatively new name for a basic social fact: the sharing of such attitudes as intentions, beliefs and emotions. This volume contributes to current research on collective intentionality by pursuing three aims.
First, some of the main conceptual problems in the received literature are introduced, and a number of new insights into .
Third, it is shown that this line of research opens up new perspectives on classical topics in the history of social philosophy and social science, and that, conversely, an inquiry into the history of ideas can lead to further refinement of our conceptual tools in the analysis of collective intentionality (part 3).