The phonetician John Wells introduced in his book, Accents of Englishthe concept of using a single word to refer to the pronunciation of a particular group of English words. He calls these word-groups lexical sets and uses a key word, such as KIT, to identify them. The second column lists possible spellings for words in each group, while the third gives the symbol used in the International Phonetic Alphabet IPA to represent the vowel sound.
View All Description Florinef Acetate Fludrocortisone Acetate Tablets USP contains fludrocortisone acetate, a synthetic adrenocortical steroid Received pronunciation very potent mineralocorticoid properties and high glucocorticoid activity; it is used only for its mineralocorticoid effects.
Florinef Acetate is available for oral administration as scored tablets providing 0.
Clinical Pharmacology Corticosteroids are thought to act, at least in part, by controlling the rate of synthesis of proteins. Although there are a number of instances in which the synthesis of specific proteins is known to be induced by corticosteroids, the links between the initial actions of the hormones and the final metabolic effects have not been completely elucidated.
The physiologic action of fludrocortisone acetate is similar to that of hydrocortisone. However, the effects of fludrocortisone acetate, particularly on electrolyte balance, but also on carbohydrate metabolism, are considerably heightened and prolonged.
Mineralocorticoids act on the distal tubules of the kidney to enhance the reabsorption of sodium ions from the tubular fluid into the plasma; they increase the urinary excretion of both potassium and hydrogen ions. The consequence of these three primary effects together with similar actions on cation transport in other Received pronunciation appear to account for the entire spectrum of physiological activities that are characteristic of mineralocorticoids.
In small oral doses, fludrocortisone acetate produces marked sodium retention and increased urinary potassium excretion.
It also causes a rise in blood pressure, apparently because of these effects on electrolyte levels. In larger doses, fludrocortisone acetate inhibits endogenous adrenal cortical secretion, thymic activity, and pituitary corticotropin excretion; promotes the deposition of liver glycogen; and, unless protein intake is adequate, induces negative nitrogen balance.
The approximate plasma half-life of fludrocortisone fluorohydrocortisone is 3. Contraindications Corticosteroids are contraindicated in patients with systemic fungal infections and in those with a history of possible or known hypersensitivity to these agents. Corticosteroids may mask some signs of infection, and new infections may appear during their use.
There may be decreased resistance and inability to localize infection when corticosteroids are used. If an infection occurs during fludrocortisone acetate therapy, it should be promptly controlled by suitable antimicrobial therapy. Prolonged use of corticosteroids may produce posterior subcapsular cataracts, glaucoma with possible damage to the optic nerves, and may enhance the establishment of secondary ocular infections due to fungi or viruses.
Average and large doses of hydrocortisone or cortisone can cause elevation of blood pressure, salt and water retention, and increased excretion of potassium.
These effects are less likely to occur with the synthetic derivatives except when used in large doses. However, since fludrocortisone acetate is a potent mineralocorticoid, both the dosage and salt intake should be carefully monitored in order to avoid the development of hypertension, edema, or weight gain.
Periodic checking of serum electrolyte levels is advisable during prolonged therapy; dietary salt restriction and potassium supplementation may be necessary.
All corticosteroids increase calcium excretion. Patients should not be vaccinated against smallpox while on corticosteroid therapy.
Other immunization procedures should not be undertaken in patients who are on corticosteroids, especially on high dose, because of possible hazards of neurological complications and a lack of antibody response. The use of Florinef Acetate Fludrocortisone Acetate Tablets USP in patients with active tuberculosis should be restricted to those cases of fulminating or disseminated tuberculosis in which the corticosteroid is used for the management of the disease in conjunction with an appropriate antituberculous regimen.
If corticosteroids are indicated in patients with latent tuberculosis or tuberculin reactivity, close observation is necessary since reactivation of the disease may occur.
During prolonged corticosteroid therapy these patients should receive chemoprophylaxis. Children who are on immunosuppressant drugs are more susceptible to infections than healthy children. Chicken pox and measles, for example, can have a more serious or even fatal course in children on immunosuppressant corticosteroids.
In such children, or in adults who have not had these diseases, particular care should be taken to avoid exposure.This site is devoted to the production or performance of works from earlier periods of English spoken in original pronunciation (OP) – that is, in an accent that would have been in use at the time.
The Chaos by Gerard Nolst Trenité. This is a classic English poem containing about of the worst irregularities in English spelling and pronunciation. Florinef Acetate (Fludrocortisone Acetate Tablets USP) contains fludrocortisone acetate, a synthetic adrenocortical steroid possessing very potent mineralocorticoid properties and high glucocorticoid activity; it is used only for its mineralocorticoid effects.
Pronunciation Workshop is the world's leader in American accent training. Learn how improved English pronunciation can enhance your life here! Received Pronunciation Phonology The Vowel Sounds of RP. The table below lists all the vowel sounds in an RP accent according to lexical alphabetnyc.com phonetician John Wells introduced in his book, Accents of English (), the concept of using a single word to refer to the pronunciation .
RADICAL INNOCENCE: The Romantics valued innocence as something pure, wholesome, fulfilling, natural, and individualistic.
They saw it as antithetical to the corrupting influence of civilized conformity and the heartless, mechanized, industrialized, materialistic society of the Enlightenment.