Countries with majority Muslim populations have adopted diverse legal systems. Those that were once English colonies e.
Students from Islamic madrassas seminaries chant anti-U. But religious militancy does not arise in a vacuum. Throughout history, extremist religious movements have been a response to historical circumstances, particularly arising when groups have felt threatened.
Religious extremism develops when some portion of a community rejects, often violently, the presence or influence of a challenge to its sense of self. Whether that challenge is cultural, political, or economic -- or a combination of these -- a violent or threatening response is seen by extremists as religiously mandated.
The Middle East currently has a number of issues that challenge its communities' fundamental living standards and values, and which have given rise to extremist religious reaction.
The Arab-Israeli conflict The Arab-Israeli conflict is the most obvious issue that provokes extremist responses. Religious militants as well as secular nationalist militants exist on both sides of the Arab-Israeli conflict -- most recently and specifically, the Palestinian-Israeli conflict.
Hamas and other Islamist Palestinian groups, like Jewish extremist groups on the other side, argue that the land of Palestine was given to them by God and that they will not give up any part of their claim to it.
Rescue workers search the scene following a suicide-bomb explosion on a bus in Haifa, December 2, They advocate establishing and enlarging Jewish settlements in the Occupied Territories and take a hard line against Palestinian control, advocating or supporting violence or vigilantism.
With the notable exception of Baruch Goldstein a settler associated with the Kach movement who killed 29 Palestinians in a Hebron mosque inIsraeli settlers have thus far not engaged in political violence on the same scale as radical Palestinian civilians.
The Israeli army, however, has killed many Palestinians during the recent and previous intifadas, the Palestinian uprisings against Israeli occupation that began in the late s.
In fact, more Palestinians have died in these conflicts than Israelis.
Many Palestinians and other Arabs accuse the Israeli government of state-sponsored terrorism, but Israel says its military campaigns are necessary to protect its civilians from violent Islamist attacks. Lebanon is a case in point, where, largely because of French colonial policies, groups compete for political power along religious lines.
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|Concept | Define Concept at alphabetnyc.com||Muslimthe word for an adherent of Islam, is the active participle of the same verb form, and means "submitter" or "one who surrenders". The word sometimes has distinct connotations in its various occurrences in the Quran.|
|Explanation of Some Important Islamic Terms:||Muslim rebellions in Yunnan and in Shaanxi and Gansu originated from clashes between the Chinese and Muslims in those provinces.|
Religious conflicts can also arise not between different religions, but within one. Religious extremists may oppose a government's policies in many areas, and insist that a purer, stricter form of religion defined by them would solve many problems.
Pilgrims surround Kaaba, the holiest temple in Islam, at the center of the ancient shrine of Mecca. Much of the Saudi government's legitimacy is based on its country's role in Islam. Saudi Arabia -- the birthplace of Muhammad and the protector of Islam's holiest sites -- is propagator of the rigid Wahhabi form of Islam throughout the world, and itself practices the strictest application of the Islamic code of law.
Today, however, the Saudi governing elite face opposition from religious extremists inside the country who accuse them of not being religious enough and of being too closely allied with an anti-Islamic West.
Religion can be an effective way to channel opposition to an external threat or to a repressive regime -- possibly the only political outlet if a regime has eliminated other opposition groups.
An opposition movement organized around religion immediately inherits a number of advantages: For example, Islamists may advocate an absolute rejection of Western morals and cultural practices such as violence in American movies, midriff-baring fashions for women, and recreational use of drugs, which are perceived as serious threats to the very fabric of their societies.
While there are different definitions of terrorism, they all have in common the use of violence as a means of causing fear in a community in order to affect political decisions or policy.
The first "terrorists" to wear the label proudly were French revolutionaries after Maximillian Robespierre, the radical leader in the post-revolutionary period, famously said that virtue is powerless without terror. Like terrorist groups in the Middle East, some of these groups justify their acts through religious arguments, while others base their acts in other, usually political ideologies.
There are many ways to define terrorism, and each definition includes or excludes different political groups. Any definition, however, would state that terrorism is the use of violence, or the threat of violence, as a negotiating tool in achieving a political goal.
Furthermore, terrorism is generally defined as actions outside of a declared war between states, and with civilian victims. Whether or not the terrorists themselves are a legitimate government "state-sponsored terrorism" or a non-governmental group or individual, varies between personal definitions.
There is also the issue of a revolutionary force -- for example, a state militia led by a charismatic leader seeking to overthrow an oppressive government.Sharīʿah: Sharīʿah, the fundamental religious concept of Islam, namely its law, systematized during the 2nd and 3rd centuries of the Muslim era (8th–9th centuries ce).
Total and unqualified submission to the will of Allah (God) is the fundamental tenet of Islam: Islamic law is therefore the expression of. Islam is also discussed in articles on individual countries or on regions in which the religion is a factor, such as Egypt, Iran, Arabia, and North Africa.
See articles on individual branches or sects and concepts—for example, Islam, Nation of; Sunni; Shīʿite; Hadith. providing a clear definition of these concepts.9 Aziz al-Azmeh, the author of Islams and Modernities, labels contemporary Islamic movements ‘political Islamism’ and not, for instance, ‘Islamic fundamen-.
Page 17 The Islamic Worldview (Concept of Tawhid) & KAMAL ARIFFIN OSMAN Secular World View S What is Secularism The English word secular derives from the Latin word saeculum, meaning “this present age”, and “this world” of change as opposed to the eternal “religious world”.
Islam, concept of philosophy in. There is no generally accepted definition of what Islamic philosophy is, and the term will be used here to mean the sort of philosophy which arose within the culture of Islam. Islam definition, the religious faith of Muslims, based on the words and religious system founded by the prophet Muhammad and taught by the Koran, the basic principle of which is absolute submission to a unique and personal god, Allah.