One of the men driving this herd was a twenty-two year old cowhand named Nat Love. Love, one of six African-Americans participating in the competition, won the roping contest by lassoing and mounting a wild mustang in nine minutes flat.
During the fifteenth century, Europe began a process of unprecedented expansion that by had affected all areas of the world. This was actually part of a global tendency towards complexity among many human societies. In Eurasia, developing navigational technology, along with expanding trade, encouraged long sea voyages by Arabs, Japanese, Chinese, and Europeans.
But only the Europeans linked up all the continents in a new global age, when sea power, rather than land-based armies, was the main force in empire-building. Overseas expansion was obviously related - both as cause and effect - to the European transition from medievalism.
The Crusades and the Renaissance stimulated European curiosity; the Reformation produced thousands of zealous religious missionaries seeking foreign converts and refugees seeking religious freedom; and the monarchs of emerging sovereign states sought revenues, first from trade with the Orient and later by exploiting a new world.
Perhaps the most permeating influence was the rise of European capitalism, with its monetary values, profit-seeking motivations, investment institutions, and constant impulse toward economic expansion. Some historians have labeled this whole economic transformation "the Commercial Revolution.
Interpreted either way, the Commercial Revolution and its accompanying European expansion helped usher in the modern era. By the middle of the seventeenth century, the full impact of the Commercial Revolution had not yet been experienced in Europe.
Neither the Portuguese nor the Spanish, who were dominant overseas until the late s, could maintain their initial advantages over the long term. Portugal lacked manpower and resources required by an empire spread over three continents.
Spain wasted the wealth of the New World in continuous wars, while neglecting to develop its own economy. In Portuguese pepper cost 80 percent less than that which came through Venice and the eastern Mediterranean.
Iberian expansion also inspired other Europeans with hope and confidence while effecting a mixing of peoples, a diffusion of cultures, and an intercontinental exchange of plants and animals such as the world had never seen before. Boorstin, The Discoverers, New York: Random House,p.
Muslim control over the eastern caravan routes, particularly after the Turks took Constantinople inbrought rising prices while emphasizing European weaknesses against Turkish land forces.
But the sprawling Islamic world lacked both unity and intimidating sea power. China after abandoned its extensive naval forays into the Indan Ocean. Portugal and Spain, still involved in their centuries-old struggle with Muslims in the Mediterranean, were thus encouraged to seek new sea routes to the east, where they might find the Turks vulnerable or drain the rich ports of sub-Sahara Africa and southern Asia.
By the s, the Iberian states were already proficient in new naval technology and tactics. Like other Europeans, the Portuguese and Spanish and long since adopted the compass and astrolabe, thus partially freeing themselves from land-hugging on long voyages.
They were skilled cartographers and chartmakers, especially the Portuguese. But their main advantages lay with their ships and naval guns. The stormy Atlantic required broad bows, deep keels and complex square rigging for driving and maneuvering fighting ships.
Armed with brass cannons, such ships could sink enemy vessels, without ramming or boarding at close quarters. They could also batter down coastal defenses.BCE Clovis people The Clovis people are in New Mexico by the end of the last Ice Age (12, to 11, years ago), although recent research suggests that date may be pushed back even.
Update. Well this article proved exceedingly popular! Thank you to everyone who visited, or took the time to leave a comment. I would encourage new visitors to have a read through the comments below for some interesting ideas and perspectives. Spice trade: Spice trade, the cultivation, preparation, transport, and merchandising of spices and herbs, an enterprise of ancient origins and great cultural and economic significance.
Seasonings such as cinnamon, cassia, cardamom, ginger, and turmeric were important items of commerce in . Lighthouse History Our History: A Spanish watchtower, built in the late 's was the predecessor of the present St.
Augustine Lighthouse. St. Augustine is the site of the oldest, permanent aid. Giving Up the Gun: Japan's Reversion to the Sword, [Noel Perrin] on alphabetnyc.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
This is a significant story, and Perrin tells it marvelously well. The Iberian Golden Age European Expansion: Exploration And Colonization, Author: Allen Pikerman Date: Introduction During the fifteenth century, Europe began a process of.