A new idea is first condemned as ridiculous and then dismissed as trivial, until finally, it becomes what everybody knows. The nature of our diets leads to a serious lack of this essential nutrient. This situation may be a leading contributor to much of the sickness and chronic disease that the population of the earth suffers. A study in the Journal of Epidemiology May, was reported to show that people who have high blood levels of vitamin C live 6 years longer than those who have lower blood levels.
Sources Vitamin C officially known as L-ascorbic acid, its prolonged name being 2-oxo-L-threo-hexono-1,4-lactone-2,3-enediol is an Essential Vitaminfirst structurally identified by Szent-Gyorgyi, Waugh, and King in   and first synthesized by Haworth and Hirst in Average dietary intakes are in the sufficiency range above what the RDA recommends although the lowest groups of vitamin C intake are under the recommendations Particularly rich sources of Vitamin C include: In the US, juices appear to contribute a significant amount of vitamin C to the diet 1.
Biological Significance Vitamin C appears to be a cofactor for proper collagen synthesis, L-carnitine biosynthesis interestingly not mandatory and some neurotransmitters particularly catecholamines.
It also influences a few other neurotransmitters, and is required for proper collagen joint synthesis rates Biosynthesis of Vitamin C can normally occur from either glucose or galactose being converted to glucosephosphate, which then is converted to uridine diphosphate glucose and via uridine diphosphate glucuoronic acid into L-glucuronic acid.
A failure to get sufficient Vitamin C in the diet results in scurvy,   and the ability of a molecule to prevent scurvy of which Vitamin C is the reference drug is known as being anti-scorbutic. If Vitamin C is not obtained via the diet, then a human will eventually get scurvy While scurvy is the clinical deficiency state and is true 'Vitamin C deficiency'there are various states associated with excessive oxidation which serum vitamin C tends to be reduced or at least the REDOX balanced altered suggesting a prooxidative state relative to healthy cohorts.
This includes fever and viral infections, stress, alcoholism,  smoking,   type II diabetes   despite consuming adequate vitamin C,  and in persons who have very recently suffered a myocardial infarction   or acute pancreatitis these last two normalizing after some time.
Vitamin C depletion not to a clinical state where scurvey results is associated with a variety of disease states. The reason for Vitamin c content observations is not fully clear, and the role vitamin C therapy could play in these states is similarly not clear 1.
Structure and Properties Vitamin C appears to stable in food as the form of L-ascorbic acid in the Vitamin c content range of  1. There may be some small differences between the molecules Ester-C is a brand name product patented by Zila Nutraceuticals for Vitamin C that consists of Vitamin C metabolites the aldonic acids L-lyxonic, L-xylonic, and L-Threonic acid with Calcium, and is labelled as Calcium Ascorbate.
It is touted to be non-acidic and may be better tolerated by persons with acid reflux, as one study in persons sensitive to acidic foods noted that while When serum levels are below within the physiological range the body tends to regulate ascorbate via resorption in the kidneys via sodium dependent vitamin C transporters  and have a prolonged half-life of days.
Distribution Supplementation of mg Vitamin C twice daily appears to increase expression of the transporter that mediates uptake of vitamin C in skeletal muscle SVCT2 and subsequently Vitamin C concentrations after one week, maintaining over 42 days of supplementation, despite no alterations in oxidative balance.
Metabolism Vitamin C appears to be metabolized into primarly one of three metabolites after it turns into a free radical ascrobyl radical ; dehydroascorbic acid, 2,3-diketogulonic acid and oxalic acid which convert into one another in that order.
Dietary supplementation does not necessarily increase urinary levels of these metabolites, as there is a lack of metabolism of L-ascorbic acid before it is urinated out. Vitamin C is metabolized into a free radical via a sacrifical and protective antioxidant effect and then converted into dehydroascobic acid.
From here, vitamin C then proceeds along to produce oxalic acid via 2,3-diketogulonic acid 3Neurology 3.
The majority of Vitamin C entry into the brain occurs via cerebrospinal fluid Within the brain, Vitamin C appears to be in highest concentrations in the hippocampus, parietal cortex, and the cerebellum    with slightly lower concentrations in the frontal cortex, thalamic nuclei, olfactoy bulb, and striatum with lowest detected in the spinal cord and pons lowest.
Vitamin C interacts with a variety of enzymes involved in cognition. It does not inherently induce these enzymes increase their activity or the amount of thembut its existence is required for optimal enzyme functioning; this likely means that for enzymatic benefits perhaps only avoiding a deficiency is required 3.
Acetylcholine In isolated rat synaptic vesicles, vitamin C appears to cause acetylcholine release with an EC50 value of Neuroprotection Vitamin C has been found to, in vitro, protect cerebellar granule cells from glutamate induced excitotoxicity   which is thought to be related to how NDMA receptors can respond to REDOX modulation.
This does not appear to be a unique role for Vitamin C, but something that is attributable to antioxidants in general 3.
Stress There appears to be an increase in oxidative stress within cells following percieved stressors both physical  and mental  and this increased oxidative state is known to lead to cellular death. Depression Vitamin C appears to have antidepressant effects, associated with potassium channels can be read up on under the depression section on the agmatine page.
In humans, there is an old case study where depression in a child induced by ACTH administration was alleviated with vitamin C  but more importantly, a study using a product known as Cetebe 3,mg vitamin C in otherwise healthy adults for two weeks noted a reduction in depressive symptoms Becks Depression Inventory and increase in the frequency of intercourse no influence on masturbation ;  this study was funded by the producer of Cetebe, GlaxoSmithKline.
Preliminary evidence in humans to support antidepressant effects in humans, with the lone controlled trial having a notable conflict of interest 3. Alzheimer's In regards to Alzheimer's, oxidative stress is thought to play a major role in the pathogenesis of the disease  with byproducts of peroxidation being detected in higher than normal levels in neurofibrillary tangles    and lower serum vitamin C concentrations despite adequate dietary intake  although due to a higher cerebrospinal fluid to plasma ratio in alzheimer's 5.
It may be neuroprotective but not rehabilitative, and the benefits appear to extend to other antioxidant compounds as well 4Cardiovascular Health 4. Blood Flow There appear to be several disease states or metabolic conditions of which ascorbate deficiency in the endothelium is associated with endothelial dysfunction.
Other possible mechanisms that may contribute also general to antioxidants include scavenging superoxide  which would otherwise reduce nitric oxide into peroxynitrate  and directly reducing nitrite product of nitrate into nitric oxide  or producing nitric oxide from S-nitrosothiols.
This is not a unique mechanism of action, and is thought to underlie the effects of other potent antioxidants such as melatonin or pycnogenol both demonstrated to act similarly 4.One of the most common questions people ask when they first hear about the all-meat diet is, “Where do you get your vitamin C?” Since a vitamin C deficiency leads to scurvy, a very serious and ultimately lethal illness, it is a perfectly understandable and legitimate line of inquiry.
Vitamin C (vitamin C) occurs naturally in foods such as citrus fruit, tomatoes, potatoes, and leafy vegetables.
Vitamin C is important for bones and connective tissues, muscles, and blood vessels. Also, it has the highest vitamin C content. And unlike other foods with vitamin C, this superfood is different because it has the complete vitamin C complex.
This means it has bioflavonoids, tyrosinase, rutin, ascorbinogen, and other factors. Although vitamin C is not naturally present in grains, it is added to some fortified breakfast cereals.
The vitamin C content of food may be reduced by prolonged storage and by cooking because ascorbic acid is water soluble and is destroyed by heat [6,8]. Steaming or microwaving may lessen cooking losses. “Breakthrough Liposomal Technology Takes the Grandfather of Antioxidants to a Whole New Level of Comfort and Usability*” In the past, if you wanted to take a higher dose of vitamin C but didn’t want the typical tummy discomfort or loose stools, your only option was intravenous or I.V.
vitamin C. Vitamin C is one of the safest and most effective nutrients, experts alphabetnyc.com may not be the cure for the common cold (though it's thought to .